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Selasa, 08 Februari 2011

Daftar Fonem dan Alofon

Daftar Fonem dan Alofon


Vokal
No
Fonem
Alofon
Contoh
ditulis
1
/a/
[a]
/adik/
adik
2
/e/
[e]
[ε]
/lele/, /sore/
/lεlεh/, /nεnε?/
lele, sore
leleh, nenek
3
/∂/
[]
/bsar/,/mas/ , /kod/
besar, emas, kode
4
/i/
[i]
[I]
/tari/, /gigi/
/tarI?/, /gigIh/
tari, gigi
tarik, gigih
5
/u/
[u]
[U]
/tau/, /cucu/
/taUn/, /rapUh/
tau, cucu
taun, rapuh
6
/o/
[o]
[]
/toko/, /soto/
/tokh/,/pohn/
toko, soto
tokoh, pohon

Konsonan
No
Fonem
Alofon
Contoh
ditulis
1
/p/
[p]
[p]
/pintu/, /sampay/
/tatap/, /sәdap/
pintu, sampai
tatap, sedap
2
/b/
[b]
[pֿ]
/baru/,/tambal/
/adap ֿ/, /pәradaban/
baru, tambal
adab, peradaban
3
/t/
[t]
[t’]
/timpa/, /santay/
/lompat’/,/tәmpat’/
timpa, santai
lompat, tempat
4
/d/
[d]
[t’]
/duta/, /madu/
/tekat’/,/abat’/
/murtat’/, /kәmurtadan/
duta, madu
tekad, abad,
murtad, kemurtadan
5
/k/
[k]
[k’]
[?]
/kuraη/,/sukar/
/politik’/
/rusa?/, /tida?/
kurang, sukar
politik
rusak, tidak
6
/g/
[g]
[k]
/gula/, /ragu/
/bәduk/, /gudәk/, /kәajәgan/,
/ kәajәkan/
gula, ragu
bedug, gudeg, keajegan
7
glotal /?/
[?]
/bapa?/, /ma?af?, /i?in/, /cәmo?oh/
bapak, maaf, iin, cemooh
8
/c/
[c]
/cari/, /pici/, /caciη/, /pincaη/
cari, pici, cacing, pincang
9
/j/
[j]
/juga/, /maju/, /mi?raj/
juga, maju, mikraj
10
/f/
[f]
/fakta/, /fajar/, /kafir/, /fariasi/, /telefisi/
fakta, fajar, kafir, variasi, televisi
11
/s/
[s]
/sama/, /malas/, /pasti/, /saraf/
sama, malas, pasti, saraf
12
/z/
[z]
/zat/, /zәni/, /izin/
zat, zeni, izin
13
/š/
[š]
/ šukur/, /mašarakat/, /ašik/
syukur, masyarakat, asyik
14
/x/
[x]
/xas/, /axir/, /tarix/, /xawatir/
khas, akhir, tarikh, khawatir
15
/h/
[h]
[ħ]
/hari/, /rumah/, /murah/
/tau/, /liat/
hari, rumah, murah
tahu, lihat
16
/m/
[m]
/makan/, /sampay/, /malam/
makan, sampai, malam
17
/n/
[n]
/nakal/, /pantay/, /ikan/
nakal, pantai, ikan
18
/ň/
[ň]
/ňiur/, /ňaňian/, /m ňalin/
nyiur, nyanyian, menyalin
19
/η/
[η]
/ηaray/, /paηkat/, /paliη/
ngarai, pangkat, paling
20
/r/
[R]
/Raja/, /kaRya/, /pasaR/, /kәmaRin/
raja, karya, pasar, kemarin
21
/l/
[l]
/lama/, /palsu/, /aspal/
lama, palsu, aspal
22
/w/
[w]
/waktu/, /warna/, /kalaw/, /walawpun/
waktu, warna, kalau, walaupun
23
/y/
[y]
/yakin/, /yakni/, /santay/, /ramay/
yakin, yakni, santai, ramai

diftong       contoh         ditulis
/ay/            /cukay/          /cukai/
/aw/           /harimaw/      /harimau/
/oy/            /sekoy/           /sekoi/

gugus         contoh
/pl/          pleonasme, pleno, kompleks, taplak
/bl/          blangko, Blambangan, gemblang
/kl/          klinik, klimaks, klasik
/gl/          global, gladiator, isoglos
/fl/           flamboyan, flanel, flu
/sl/          slogan, slipi
/pr/          pribadi, April, semprot
/br/          brahma, obral, ambruk
/tr/           tragedi, sastra, mitra
/dr/          drama, adres, drastis
/kr/          kristen, akrab, krupuk, mikroskop
/gr/          gram, granat, grafik
/fr/           fragmen, diafragma, frustasi
/sr/          pasrah, Sragen, Sriwijaya
/ps/          psikologi, psikiater, psikolog, pseudo
gugus       contoh
/ks/          ekstra, eksponen
/dw/        dwifungsi, dwiwarna, dwibahasa
/sw/         swalayan, swasembada, swasta
/kw/        kuintal, kuitansi
/sp/          spora, spanduk, sponsor
/sm/         smokel
/sn/          snobisme
/sk/          skala, skema, skandal

deret vokal         contoh            ditulis             contoh              ditulis          contoh        ditulis
/i u/                      /tiup/              tiup                /iur/                  iur              /ňiur/           nyiur
/i o/                     /kios/             kios               /radio/              radio          /biola/         biola
/i a/                      /tiap/              tiap                /dia/                  dia              /giat/           giat
/e i/                      /mei/              Mei
/e a/                     /beasiswa/     beasiswa       /kreasi/             kreasi
/e o/                    /feodal/          feodal            /beo/                beo            /pemeo/      pemeo
/a e/                     /daerah/         daerah
/a i/                      /sainan/          saingan          /mainan/            mainan        /kain/          kain
/a u/                     /kaum/           kaum             /tau/                  tahu            /mau/          mau
/o a/                    /soal/             soal               /doa/                doa
/u i/                      /kuil/              kuil                /buih/                buih
/u a/                     /dua/              dua                /puasa/             puasa         /suap/         suap
/u e/                     /kue/              kue                /duet/                duet
/u o/                    /kuota/           kuota
/әi/                       /sәikat/          seikat
/әe/                      /sәekor/         seekor
/әa/                      /sәakan/         seakan
/әu/                      /sәutas/          seutas
/әo/                     /sәoraη/         seorang
/әә/                      /kәәnam/       keenam
deret konsonan       contoh
/mp/                       empat, pimpin, tampuk
/mb/                       ambil, gambar, ambang
/nt/                         untuk, ganti, pintu
/nd/                        indah, pendek, pandang
/ňc/                         lancar, kunci, kencang
/ňj/                         janji, banjir, panjang
/ηk/                        engkau, mungkin, bungkuk
/ηg/                        angguk, tinggi, tanggung
/ηs/                         insaf, insang
/ns/                         bangsa, angsa, mangsa
/rb/                         kerbau, korban, terbang
/rd/                         merdeka, merdu, kerdil
/rg/                         harga, pergi, sorga
/rj/                          kerja, terjang, sarjana
/rm/                        permata, cermin, derma
/rn/                         warna, purnama, ternak
/rl/                          perlu, kerling, kerlip
/rt/                          arti, serta, harta
/rk/                         terka, perkara, murka
/rs/                         bersih, kursi, gersang
/rc/                         percaya, karcis, percik
/st/                          isteri, pasti, kusta, dusta
/sl/                          asli, tuslah, beslit, beslah
/kt/                         waktu, dokter, bukti
/ks/                         paksa, laksana, saksama
/?d/                        takdir
/?n/                         laknat, makna, yakni
/?l/                          takluk, maklum, taklimat
/?r/                         makruf, takrif
/?y/                         rakyat
deret konsonan       contoh
/?w/                        dakwa, dakwah, takwa
/pt/                         sapta, optik, baptis
/ht/                         sejahtera, tahta, bahtera
/hk/                        bahkan
/hš/                         dahsyat
/hb/                        sahbandar, tahbis
/hl/                          ahli, mahligai, tahlil
/hy/                         sembahyang
/hw/                        bahwa, syahwat
/sh/                         mashur
/mr/                        jamrut
/ml/                         jumlah, imla
/lm/                         ilmu, gulma, palma
/gn/                         signal, kognitif
/np/                        tanpa
/rh/                         gerhana, durhaka
/sb/                         asbak, asbes, tasbih
/sp/                         puspa, puspita, aspirasi, aspal
/sm/                        basmi, asmara, resmi
/km/                       sukma
/ls/                          palsu, pulsa, filsafat, balsem
/lj/                          salju, aljabar
/lt/                          sultan, salto, simultan
/pd/                        sabda, abdi
/gm/                        magma, dogma
/hd/                        syahdan, syahdu

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